Time on the Cross: The Economics of Negro Slavery is a mythbusting revisionist tour of the reality of slavery as it existed in the American South.
His brother, six years his senior, was his main intellectual influence in his youth as he listened to him and his college friends intensely discuss social and economic issues of the Great Depression. After graduation inhe became a professional organizer for the Communist Party. After working eight years as a professional organizer, he rejected communism as unscientific and attended Columbia Universitywhere he studied under George Stigler and obtained an MA in economics in He began his research career as an assistant professor at the University of Rochester in In he moved to the University of Chicago as an associate professor.
From to he was also a visiting professor at Rochester in autumn semesters. During this time he completed some of his most important works, including Time on the Cross in collaboration with Stanley Engerman.
He also mentored a large group of students and researchers in economic history, including his colleague Deirdre McCloskey at Chicago. In he left for Harvard Universityand from on he worked as a research associate under the National Bureau of Economic Research in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
He integrated insights from such diverse fields in his attempts to explain important historical phenomena such as the dramatic fall in mortality rates from the 18th to the 20th century.
His former colleague Deirdre McCloskey credits Fogel with "reuniting economics and history". He advised many students who went on to become prominent economic historians, so that many economic historians in the United States trace their academic lineage to him.
The couple faced significant difficulties at the time due to anti-miscegenation laws and prevalent sentiments against interracial marriages. He died on June 11,in Oak Lawn, Illinois of a short illness, aged Essays in Econometric History Its argument and method were each rebuttals to a long line of non-numeric historical arguments that had ascribed much to expansionary effect to railroads without rigorous reference to economic data.
Fogel argued against these previous historical arguments to show that onset of the railroad was not indispensable to the American economy. Examining the transportation of agricultural goods, Fogel compared the economy to a hypothetical economy in which transportation infrastructure was limited to wagons, canals, and natural waterways.
Fogel pointed out that the absence of railroads would have substantially increased transportation costs from farms to primary markets, particularly in the Midwest, and changed the geographic location of agricultural production.
Despite this consideration, the overall increase in transportation costs, i. The potential for substitute technologies, such as a more extensive canal system or improved roads, would have further lowered the importance of railroads.
The conclusion that railroads were not indispensable to economic development made a controversial name for cliometrics. In the book, Fogel and Engerman argued that the system of slavery was profitable for slave owners because they organized plantation production "rationally" to maximize their profits.
Due to economies of scale, the so-called " gang system " of labor on cotton plantationsthey argued, Southern slave farms were more productive, per unit of labor, than northern farms. The implications of this, Engerman and Fogel contended, is that slavery in the American South was not quickly going away on its own as it had in some historical instances such as ancient Rome because, despite its exploitative nature, slavery was immensely profitable and productive for slave owners.
This contradicted the argument of earlier Southern historians. A portion of Time on the Cross focused on how slave owners treated their slaves. Engerman and Fogel argued that because slave owners approached slave production as a business enterprise, there were some limits on the amount of exploitation and oppression they inflicted on the slaves.
According to Engerman and Fogel, slaves in the American South lived better than did many industrial workers in the North. Fogel based this analysis largely on plantation records and claimed that slaves worked less, were better fed and whipped only occasionally — although the authors were careful to state explicitly that slaves were still exploited in ways which were not captured by measures available from records.
This portion of Time on the Cross created a firestorm of controversy, although it was not directly related to the central argument of the book — that Southern slave plantations were profitable for the slave owners and would not have disappeared in the absence of the Civil War.
Some criticisms mistakenly considered Fogel an apologist for slavery. In fact, Fogel objected to slavery on moral grounds; he thought that on purely economic grounds, slavery was not unprofitable or inefficient as previous historians such as Ulrich B.
Without Consent or Contract: In it he very clearly spells out a moral indictment of slavery when he references things such as the high infant mortality rate from overworked pregnant women, and the cruel slave hierarchies established by their masters.
He does not write so much on what he had already established in his previous work, and instead focuses on how such an economically efficient system was threatened and ultimately abolished. Using the same measurement techniques he used in his previous work, he analyzed a mountain of evidence pertaining to the lives of slaves, but he focuses much more on the social aspects versus economics this time.
He both illustrates how incredibly hard and life-threatening the work of a slave was, as well as how they were able to form their own culture as a resistance to slavery.
His main point ultimately comes across, though, as he explains how a small group of very vocal and committed religious reformers led the fight against slavery until it became a political force that captured the attention of the President of the United States. The Fourth Great Awakening[ edit ] In Fogel published The Fourth Great Awakening and the Future of Egalitarianism in which he argued that America has been moving cyclically toward greater equality, largely because of the influence of religion, especially evangelicalism.
The work of Fogel was largely influenced by the McKeown thesis. Sincethe British public health scientist Thomas McKeown had developed a theory that the growth of population since the 18th century can be attributed to a decline in mortality from infectious diseases, largely to a better standard of living, particularly to better nutrition, but later also to better hygiene, and only marginally and late to medicine.Time on the Cross: The Economics of American Slavery by Robert William Fogel, Stanley L.
Engerman First published in , Fogel and Engerman's groundbreaking book reexamined the economic foundations of American slavery, marking "the start of a new period of slavery scholarship and some searching revisions of a national tradition" (C.
. Digital Impact LLC produces large format, high-resolution, semi-permanent corrugated/mixed material POP & POS displays, product packaging and specialized permanent displays for companies of all backgrounds.
Our clients know us for our reliability, speed to market, and long-standing razor sharp focus on customer service. Utilizing state of the art digital printing, we produce product packaging.
1. Harold Wilensky put it baldly and succinctly: "Economic growth is the ultimate cause of welfare state development." Harold Wilensky, The Welfare State and Equality (Berkeley: University of California Press, ), p. 2. Thus, Flora and Alber find no correlation between levels of industrialization and social insurance programs of 12 European nations between the s and the s.
Anarchist economics is the set of theories and practices of economic activity within the political philosophy of caninariojana.com the exception of anarcho-capitalists who accept private ownership of the means of production, anarchists are anti-capitalists.
They argue that its characteristic institutions promote and reproduce various forms of economic activity which they consider oppressive. In historiography: Economic history In Time on the Cross: The Economics of American Negro Slavery (), Fogel and his colleague Stanley Engerman addressed the issue of the profitability of slavery, using the methods Fogel had developed in his earlier study.
Packing slaves onto a deck of a slave ship called The Brookes.. The iconic Brookes print, designed in Plymouth, UK, in depicted the conditions on board the slave ship The image portrayed slaves arranged in accordance with the Regulated Slave Trade Act of