An essay has been defined in a variety of ways.
Evolution[ edit ] Frederick Jackson Turner, c. They adapted to the new physical, economic and political environment in certain ways—the cumulative effect of these adaptations was Americanization. Successive generations moved further inland, shifting the lines of settlement and wilderness, but preserving the essential tension between the two.
European characteristics fell by the wayside and the old country's institutions e. Every generation moved further west and became more American, more democratic, and more intolerant of hierarchy. They also became more violent, more individualistic, more distrustful of authority, less artistic, less scientific, and more dependent on ad-hoc organizations they formed themselves.
In broad terms, the further west, the more American the community. Census of had officially stated that the American frontier had broken up.
He sounded an alarming note, speculating as to what this meant for the continued dynamism of American society as the source of U. South Africa, Canada, Russia, Brazil, Argentina and Australia—and even ancient Rome—had long frontiers that were also settled by pioneers.
The question is whether their frontiers were powerful enough to overcome conservative central forces based in the metropolis. In Australia, "mateship" and working together was valued more than individualism was in the United States.
Roosevelt argued that the battles between the trans-Appalachian pioneers and the Indians in the "Winning of the West" had forged a new people, the American race. Turner's thesis quickly became popular among intellectuals. It explained why the American people and American government were so different from their European counterparts.
It was popular among New Dealers—Franklin Roosevelt and his top aides  thought in terms of finding new frontiers.
This is the great, the nation-wide frontier of insecurity, of human want and fear. This is the frontier—the America—we have set ourselves to reclaim. However, others viewed this interpretation as the impetus for a new wave in the history of United States imperialism.
William Appleman Williams led the "Wisconsin School" of diplomatic historians by arguing that the frontier thesis encouraged American overseas expansion, especially in Asia, during the 20th century.
Williams viewed the frontier concept as a tool to promote democracy through both world wars, to endorse spending on foreign aid, and motivate action against totalitarianism.
Other historians, who wanted to focus scholarship on minorities, especially Native Americans and Hispanics, started in the s to criticize the frontier thesis because it did not attempt to explain the evolution of those groups. Mode inargued that churches adapted to the characteristics of the frontier, creating new denominations such as the Mormonsthe Church of Christthe Disciples of Christand the Cumberland Presbyterians.Last week, in an essay here at Time, Caroline Kitchens wrote that rape culture as a theory over-hyped by “hysterical” caninariojana.comened by a disappointing and out of touch statement by the.
The Frontier Thesis or Turner Thesis, is the argument advanced by historian Frederick Jackson Turner in that American democracy was formed by the American caninariojana.com stressed the process—the moving frontier line—and the impact it had on pioneers going through the process.
He also stressed results, especially that American democracy was the primary result, along with egalitarianism, a. The nation’s current post-truth moment is the ultimate expression of mind-sets that have made America exceptional throughout its history.
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